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Human factors - Top ten - 5. Human factors in design

5. Human factors in design: (a) General

Definition
Integration of human factors at various stages of design such that design is not just an engineering hardware issue.

Consequences
Failure to incorporate human factors considerations leading to human error in operations or maintenance.

Introductory resources

  • Human factors briefing note no. 16: Human factors integration, Energy Institute (2011) (http://www.energyinst.org.uk/humanfactors/bn).
  • Guidance for safer design of offshore installations – An overview, Energy Institute (2005), ISBN 9780852934463.
  • Incorporation of human factors in the design process, PRISM (2004) (http://www.energyinst.org/home).
  • Safety information bulletin: Integration of human factors into design and major modifications of plant, Energy Institute (2005), (http://www.energyinst.org.uk/humanfactors/sib).
  • Set phasers on stun and other true tales of design technology and human error, 2nd Edition, Casey, S. (2008), Atlantic Books, ISBN978-0963617880.
  • Workplace rrgonomics: A practical guide, Second edition, McKeown, C. and Twiss, M. (2004), IOSH Services Ltd., ISBN-13: 978-0901357359.
  • Introduction to human factors and ergonomics for engineers, Lehto, M.R.  Buck, J.  CRC Press, ISBN: 978 0805853087.
  • The ergonomics kit for general industry, Second edition, MacLeod, D.  (2006), CRC Press,  ISBN 978-0-8493-7029-8.
  • Guide to methodology in ergonomics: Designing for human use, Stanton, N.A. & Young, M.  (1999), CRC Press, ISBN 978 0748407033.
  • Application of human factors to a new project, International Association of Oil and Gas Producers, case study (http://info.ogp.org.uk/HF/).
  • Standard practice for human engineering program requirements for ships and marine systems, equipment, and facilities, ASTM F1337 - 10, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2010) (http://www.astm.org/Standards/F1337.htm).

Practical tools

  • A practical guide for engineering and design, Stanton, N.A. et al (2005), Ashgate, ISBN 978-0-7546-4661-7
  • Safety information bulletin: Workspace modelling, Energy Institute (2006), (http://www.energyinst.org/home).

Advanced resources

  • Human factors for engineers, Sandom, C. and Harvey, R. (Eds.), The Institute of Electrical Engineers (2004), ISBN 0 86341 329 3 (http://www.theiet.org).
  • Human factors integration: Implementation in the onshore and offshore industries, HSE RR 001, HSE Books (2002), ISBN 0 7176 2529 X (http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/publish.htm).
  • Framework for assessing human factor capability, HSE OTO 2002/016, HSE Books (2002), ISBN 0 7176 2338 6 (http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/publish.htm).  
  • Handbook of human factors and ergonomics, Third edition, Salvendy, G. (2006), John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0471449171.
  • Defence standard 00-250, Human factors for designers of systems (Parts 0-4), Ministry of Defence (various dates 2003-2008), (http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/).
  • Introduction to ergonomics, Second edition, Bridger, R. (2003), CRC Press, ISBN 978-0415273787.
  • Designing for humans, Noyes, J., Psychology Press, ISBN: 978 0415227216.
  • A guide to human factors and ergonomics, Second edition, Helander, M. (2005), CRC Press, ISBN 978 0415282482.
  • Applied ergonomics, Alexander, D. & Rabourn, R. (Eds) (2001), CRC Press, ISBN: 978 0415238526.
  • Jobs, technology and people, Chmiel, N. & Hinton, P.R. (1998), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415158176 Pages: 176.
  • Safer complex industrial environments: A human factors approach, Hollnagel, E. (2009), CRC Press, ISBN 978 1420092486.
  • Rail industry human factors good practice guide, RSSB (2008), Website download, (http://www.rssb.co.uk) Project no. T802.
  • Human factors design standard, Federal Aviation Administration (2010), FAA website download, periodically updated (http://hf.tc.faa.gov).
  • Introduction to human factors engineering, Second edition (2003), Wickens, C. et al, Prentice Hall.
  • Human factors in lighting, Second edition (2003), Boyce, P.R. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Kent.

 


5. Human factors in design: (b) Alarm handling

Definition
Designing alarm systems to ensure prompt, reliable and effective operator response.

Consequences
Failure to identify a need to act or failure to select an effective course of action.
Texaco refinery (Milford Haven), Three-Mile Island.

Introductory resources

Practical tools

  • Alarm systems, a guide to design, management and procurement, EEMUA Publication No. 191, Second edition, (2007), ISBN 0 85931 155 4 (http://www.eemua.co.uk) (under EEMUA Catalogue: ‘Instrumentation & Control’)

Advanced resources

 


5. Human factors in design: (c) Control rooms

Definition
Layout of control rooms and process control stations.

Consequences
Failure to incorporate human factors considerations leading to human failure in operation or maintenance.

Introductory resources

  • Control room design, HSE COMAH safety report assessment guidance, technical measures document (http://www.hse.gov.uk/comah/sragtech/techmeascontrol.htm).
  • Development of the best practice guidance on optimising human behaviour for small and medium sized enterprises, Annex 3: Best practice guidance on human/computer & human/machine interaction for small and medium sized enterprises, PRISM (2004) (http://www.prism-network.org).  

Practical tools

Advanced resources

  • Control room design - making sure that human factors are taken into consideration during design, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (2003), (http://www.npd.no/English/Frontpage.htm).
  • Human-system interface design review guidelines, NUREG-0700, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2002), (http://www.nrc.gov/).
  • Process plant control desks utilising human-computer interfaces – A guide to design, operational and human interface issues, EEMUA Publication No. 201 (2002), ISBN 0 85931 136 8 (http://www.eemua.co.uk).
  • Human factors aspects of remote operation in process plants, HSE CRR 432/2002, HSE Books (2002), ISBN 0 7176 2355 6 (http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/publish.htm).
  • Ergonomic design of control centres, ISO 11064: in seven parts, International Organisation for Standardisation (1999-2008), (http://www.iso.org/iso/home.htm).
  • Design criteria standard, Human Engineering MIL-STD-1472F US Department of Defence (1999). 
  • Human factors in the design and evaluation of central control room operations,  Stanton, N.A et al.  (2007), Butterworth Heinemann, ISBN 978-1439809914

 


5. Human factors in design: (d) Ergonomics – design of interfaces

Definition
Design of systems, displays, controls and hardware to aid human reliability.

Consequences
Human error in operation or maintenance.

Introductory resources

Practical tools

Advanced resources

  • Bodyspace: Anthropometry, ergonomics and the design of work, Third edition, Pheasant, S. and Haslegrave, C.M. (2005), CRC Press, ISBN 9780415285209.
  • Ergonomics at work, Oborne, D.J., Third edition, John Wiley & Sons (1995), ISBN 978-0471952350.
  • Anthropometric methods: Designing to fit the human body, Roebuck, J.A, Jr., Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA (1995).
  • The measure of man and woman-human factors in design, revised edition, Tilley A.R. & Henry Dreyfuss Associates (2002), John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0471099550.
  • Human factors design handbook, Second edition, Woodson, W.E., Tilman B. & Tilman P., McGraw-Hill, New York, (1991), ISBN 978-0070717688.
  • Identifying and eliminating ergonomic risks offshore: a resource pack for safety personnel, HSE research project 3690 (2003), (http://www.hse.gov.uk/offshore/ergonomics.htm).
  • Recommendations for ergonomics requirements for design and use of visual display terminals in offices, BS EN ISO 9241 in several parts, British Standards Institution (1997), (http://www.iso.org/iso/home.htm).
  • Recommendations for the design of scales and indexes on analogue indicating instruments, BS 3693, British Standards Institution (1992) (http://www.bsi-global.com/en/).
  • Proposed framework for addressing human factors in IEC 61508, HSE CRR 373/2001, HSE Books (2001), ISBN 0 7176 2114 6 (http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/publish.htm).
  • Guidance notes for the application of ergonomics to marine systems, publication No. 86, American Bureau of Shipping (2003) (http://www.eagle.org).  Under ‘Resources; rules and guides; downloads’.
  • Guide for crew habitability on ships, publication No. 102, American Bureau of Shipping (2001) (http://www.eagle.org).  Under ‘Resources; rules and guides; downloads’.
  • Guide for crew habitability on offshore installations, No. 105, American Bureau of Shipping (2002) (http://www.eagle.org).  Under ‘Resources; rules and guides; downloads’.
  • The essential guide to user interface design: An introduction to GUI design principles and techniques, Third edition.  Galitz, W.O. (2007), John Wiley & Sons: New York, ISBN 0 471 15755 4.


5. Human factors in design: (e) Ergonomics – health ergonomics

Definition
Design of healthier, safer and more productive work systems that benefit individuals, organisations and society.

Consequences
Work systems that lead to accidents, ill health and job dissatisfaction.

Introductory resources

Practical tools

Advanced resources

  • Ergonomics for beginners, Dul, J. & Weerdmeester, B., Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0 7484 08258.
  • The ergonomics of workspaces and machines, Corlett, E.N. Clark, T.S., Taylor & Francis, Second edition, ISBN 0 7484 03205 (1995).
  • Ergonomic principles in the design of working systems, Edition 2, ISO 6385, International Organisation for Standardisation (2004) (http://www.iso.org/iso/home.htm).
  • A guide to ergonomics of manufacturing, Helander, M., Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0 7484 01229 (1997).
  • Fitting the task to the human, Grandjean, E., Kroemer, K., Kroemer, K.H.E. (Ed.), Taylor & Francis (1997), ISBN 0 7484 06654.
  • Template for the assessment of drill floor human factor issues, HSE OTO 2000 047 (2000), (http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/publish.htm).
  • Health and safety of portable display screen equipment, HSE CRR 304/2000, HSE Books, ISBN 0 7176 1890 0 (2000) (http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/publish.htm).
  • Occupational ergonomics: Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the upper limb and back, Violante, F., Armstrong, T. & Kilbom, A. (Eds), (2000), Taylor & Francis: London, ISBN 0 7484 0933 5.
  • Interventions, controls, and applications in occupational ergonomics: 2 (The Occupational Ergonomics Handbook, Second Edition) Marrass, W.S. (2006), Ohio State University, Columbus

 


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