About the Statistical Review

The Energy Institute is, as of 2023, the home of the Statistical Review of World Energy, published previously for more than 70 years by bp.

The Statistical Review analyses data on world energy markets from the prior year. It has been providing timely, comprehensive and objective data to the energy community since 1952. It is completely free for users to access.

The Energy Institute is preserving and building on the Statistical Review’s legacy in collaboration with others. bp is providing continuing support and, as the EI’s Partners for the Statistical Review, KPMG and Kearney are also committing funding and sector expertise.

Data compilation is being undertaken by the Centre for Energy Economics Research and Policy at Heriot-Watt University. An advisory board has also been established, bringing together respected energy thought leaders and experts to provide strategic oversight of the publication.

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Statistics published in this Review are taken from government sources and published data. No use is made of confidential information obtained by the Energy Institute or its partners in the course of its business.

Conversion factors

The conversion factors cover calculation between weight, volume and calorific measures. They provide data for crude oil, products, natural gas, LNG, electricity and solid fuels.

Reserves

Total proved reserves of oil – generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing conditions.

The total oil reserves estimates have been compiled using a combination of primary official sources, third-party data from the OPEC Secretariat, World Oil, Oil & Gas Journal and Chinese reserves based on official data and information in the public domain. Canadian oil sands 'under active development' are an official estimate. Venezuelan Orinoco Belt reserves are based on the OPEC Secretariat and government announcements. Reserves and R/P ratio for Canada includes Canadian oil sands. Reserves and R/P ratio includes the Orinoco belt. Saudi Arabia’s reserves include NGLs from 2017. Reserves include gas condensate and natural gas liquids (NGLs) as well as crude oil.

The data series for proved oil in this year’s Review does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance, as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, nor does it necessarily represent the EI’s view of proved reserves by country.

For more information please see oil reserves definitions.

Total proved reserves of natural gas – generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing conditions. The data series for proved gas reserves in this year's Review does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission nor does it necessarily represent the EI’s view of proved reserves by country.

The total natural gas reserves estimates have been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third party data from Cedigaz and the OPEC Secretariat.

Total proved reserves of coal – generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing conditions.

Source Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) Energy Study 2020.

Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio

If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that rate.

Percentages

Percentages have been calculated before the rounding of actuals.

Rounding differences

Because of rounding, some totals may not agree exactly with the sum of their component parts.

Tonnes

Metric equivalent of tons.

Regional definitions

Country groupings are made purely for statistical purposes and are not intended to imply any judgment about political or economic standings

North America

US (excluding US territories), Canada, Mexico.

Caribbean

Atlantic islands between the US Gulf Coast and South America, including Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands and Bermuda.

Central America

Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.

South and Central America

Caribbean (including Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands), Bermuda, Central and South America.

Europe

European members of the OECD plus Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Georgia, Gibraltar, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Middle East

Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria.

Northern Africa

Territories on the north coast of Africa from Egypt to Western Sahara.

Eastern Africa

Territories on the east coast of Africa from Sudan to Mozambique. Also Madagascar, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Middle Africa

Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome & Principe.

Western Africa

Territories on the west coast of Africa from Mauritania to Nigeria, including Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Mali and Niger.

Southern Africa

Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Eswatini.

Asia Pacific

Brunei, Cambodia, China †, China Hong Kong SAR*, China Macau SAR*, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, North Korea, Philippines, Singapore, South Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka), South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Oceania.

† Mainland China
* Special Administrative Region

Australasia

Australia, New Zealand.

OECD members (Organization For Economic Co-operation and Development)

Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK.

Other member countries: Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, South Korea, US.

OPEC members (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)

Middle East: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates.
North Africa: Algeria, Libya.
West Africa: Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria, Republic of Congo.
South America: Venezuela.

European Union members

Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden.

Non-OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)

All countries that are not members of the OECD.

Quoting from the Statisical Review

Publishers are welcome to quote from this document provided that they attribute the source to the Energy Institute Statistical Review of World Energy 2023. However, where extensive reproduction of tables and/or charts is planned, permission must first be obtained from:

Email: statisticalreview@energyinst.org

The Statistical Review provides a globally consistent data time series. Here we outline the definitions, conversion factors and calculations we use to produce the report.

Primary energy

Traditionally, in the Statistical Review of World Energy, the primary energy of non-fossil based electricity (nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, biomass in power and other renewables sources) has been calculated on an ‘input-equivalent’ basis – i.e. based on the equivalent amount of fossil fuel input required to generate that amount of electricity in a standard thermal power plant. For example, if nuclear power output for a country was 100 TWh, and the efficiency of a standard thermal power plant was 38%, the input equivalent primary energy would be 100/0.38 = 263 TWh or about 0.95 EJ.

For many years, the efficiency of this standard power plant has been assumed to be 38%. However, in reality, the world average efficiency of fossil fuel-based power changes over time and has risen from around 36% in 2000 to over 40% today. Moreover, given the much higher efficiency of the most modern power plant (e.g. the thermal efficiency of a modern gas turbine plant is above 55%), the global average is expected to increase in the future.

Therefore, to better assess primary energy trends, we use a time-dependent thermal equivalence model. The conversion factor used each year to calculate the ‘input-equivalent’ consumption for a given level of generation is based on a simplified representation of measured average efficiency levels:

  • 1965-2000: assumed constant efficiency of 36%
  • 2000-2017: a linear increase from 36% to 40% based on observed data
  • 2018 onwards: the annual rate of efficiency improvement is based on the simplified assumption that efficiency will increase linearly to 45% by 2050

The table below quantifies these assumptions (rounded to 1 decimal place):

Thermal equivalent efficiency factors used to convert non-fossil electricity (excluding biomass powered electricity) to primary energy

Year Efficiency factor (%) Year Efficiency factor (%)
2001 36.2 2012 38.8
2002 36.5 2013 39.1
2003 36.7 2014 39.3
2004 36.9 2015 39.5
2005 37.2 2016 39.8
2006 37.4 2017 40.0
2007 37.6 2018 40.2
2008 37.9 2019 40.4
2009 38.1 2020 40.5
2010 38.4 2021 40.6
2011 38.6 2022 40.7

In this year’s Statistical Review, we use the updated the thermal equivalent efficiency factor to convert electricity generation from biomass to primary energy equivalent. Prior to 2022, the same factor was used for biomass as for all non-fossil electricity. From 2022 onwards, we assume a constant efficiency of 32% for biomass power to better reflect the actual efficiency of biomass power plants.

Primary energy consumption is reported in net terms. The gross calorific value to net calorific value adjustment is fuel-specific.

Fuels used as inputs for conversion technologies (gas-to-liquids, coal-to-liquids and coal-to-gas) are counted as production for the source fuel and the outputs are counted as consumption for the converted fuel..

Oil

Oil Reserves

Total proved reserves of oil are generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and geological conditions.

The data series for proved oil reserves in this year’s review does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission nor does it necessarily represent the EI's view of proved reserves by country. Rather the data series has been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third-party data.

Oil reserves include field condensate and natural gas liquids as well as crude oil. This inclusive approach helps to develop consistency with the oil production numbers published in the Review, which also include these categories of oil. The reserves and R/P ratio for Canada includes Canadian oil sands and the reserves and R/P ratio for Venezuela includes the Orinoco Belt.

Liquid hydrocarbon fuels from non-hydrocarbon sources, such as ethanol from corn or sugar or synthetic oil derived from natural gas (so-called GTL or gas-to-liquids), are not included in either the reserves or production series.

We have provided a detailed explanatory note on reserves clarifying current definitions and terminology.

R/P ratios represent the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at the previous year's rate. They are calculated by dividing remaining reserves at the end of the year by the production in that year.

Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios are available by country and feature in the table of oil reserves. There is a time series of crude oil reserves from 1980, which can be found in the Excel workbook. Data are measured in thousand million barrels.

Please note that these reserves tables have not been updated this year.

Oil Production

Oil production data includes crude oil, shale oil, oil sands, condensates (lease condensate or gas condensates that require further refining) and NGLs (natural gas liquids – ethane, LPG and naphtha separated from the production of natural gas). Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biofuels and synthetic derivatives of coal and natural gas. This also excludes liquid fuel adjustment factors such as refinery processing gain. Excludes oil shales/kerogen extracted in solid form.

The split of crude/condensate and natural gas liquids figures are available. The crude condensate table includes crude oil, shale/tight oil, oil sands, lease condensate or gas condensates that require further refining. Excludes liquid fuels from other sources such as biomass and synthetic derivatives of coal and natural gas. The NGLs table includes ethane, LPG and naphtha separated from the production of natural gas. Excludes condensates.

World oil production tables are available in both thousand barrels daily and million tonnes.

Liquids, oil and oil product consumption

Oil consumption as defined in previous Statistical Reviews (i.e. including biofuels) has been renamed ‘liquids’ consumption and a table is still included on this original basis. In addition, more granularity has been included on the product split of both oil products and biofuels (breaking out ethane & LPG and naphtha in oil products and the ethanol/biodiesel split of biofuels).

Total liquids consumption comprises inland demand plus international aviation and marine bunkers and refinery fuel and loss. Consumption of biogasoline (such as ethanol), biodiesel and derivatives of coal and natural gas are also included.

Oil consumption figures include inland demand plus international aviation and marine bunkers and refinery fuel and loss. Consumption of biogasoline (such as ethanol), biodiesel and derivatives of coal and natural gas are excluded. Derivatives of coal and natural gas are included.

Oil product consumption – Gasoline includes motor and aviation gasoline, gasolines and light distillate feedstock (LDF). Diesel/gasoil includes marine gasoil. ‘Fuel oil’ includes marine bunkers and crude oil used directly for fuel. ‘Others’ consists of refinery gas, solvents, petroleum coke, lubricants, bitumen, wax, other refined products and refinery fuel and loss.

Data are supplied in both exajoules and thousand barrels daily figures.

Oil Prices

The key crudes quoted are Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Nigerian Focados and Dubai in US$ per barrel.

The spot crude price history from 1972 and annual crude price history from 1861 are available in the historical data excel workbook.

Using S&P Global data

The redistribution or reproduction of data whose source is S&P Global is strictly prohibited without prior authorization from S&P Global.

Email: support@platts.com

Refining

The refinery capacity data presented in this Review represents the sum of reported atmospheric crude distillation and condensate splitting capacity. Capacity should comprise the amount of input that a distillation facility can process under usual operating conditions, taking into account scheduled downtime. Figures are in thousand barrels daily at year end per calendar day.

Refinery throughputs are based on the quantity of crude and condensate processed in atmospheric distillation units and condensate splitters. Figures are in thousands of barrels per day.

The refining margins presented are benchmark margins for three major global refining centres: US Gulf Coast (USGC), North West Europe (NWE – Rotterdam) and Singapore. In each case they are based on a single crude oil appropriate for that region and have optimized product yields based on a generic refinery configuration (cracking, hydrocracking or coking), again appropriate for that region. The margins are on a semi-variable basis, i.e. the margin after all variable costs and fixed energy costs.

Oil trade movements

The tables exclude the intra-area movements of oil (for example, crude oil and products moving between countries within Europe). They do not include biofuels. Bunker fuel is not included as exports. Crude imports and exports include condensates. Saudi Arabian exports from 1980 are also available in the oil trade movements table in the Excel workbook. The split of crude oil and products are detailed. Data in the tables are in million tonnes and thousand barrels per day.

Natural gas

Natural Gas Reserves

Total proved reserves of natural gas are generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.

The data series for proved natural gas reserves in this year’s Review does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level, for instance as published by the US Securities and Exchange Commission nor does it necessarily represent the EI's view of proved reserves by country. Rather, the data series has been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third-party data.

Although every effort is made to come up with a consistent series for reserves based on a common definition, different countries use different methodologies and the data have varying levels of reliability.

R/P ratios represent the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at the previous year's rate. They are calculated by dividing remaining reserves at the end of the year by the production in that year.

As far as possible, the data represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15°C and 1013 mbar) and have been standardized using a gross calorific value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3.

There is a time series of natural gas reserves, which can be found in the Excel workbook. Data are measured in billion cubic metres.

Please note that these reserves tables have not been updated this year.

Natural gas production

Gas production comprises marketed production and excludes gas flared or recycled gas. Includes natural gas produced for gas-to-liquids transformation.

As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15°C and 1013 mbar); as they are derived directly from tonnes of oil equivalent using an average conversion factor and have been standardized using a gross calorific value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3, they do not necessarily equate with gas volumes expressed in specific national terms.

Natural gas production is provided in three different units of measurement to accommodate regional customary usage. World natural gas production PDF tables are in both billion cubic metres, and exajoules. Data in the Excel workbook are also in billion cubic feet per day (bcf/d).

Natural gas consumption

Natural gas consumption excludes natural gas converted to liquid fuels but includes derivatives of coal as well as natural gas consumed in gas-to-liquids transformation.

As far as possible, the data above represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15°C and 1013 mbar); as they are derived directly from tonnes of oil equivalent using an average conversion factor and have been standardized using a gross calorific value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3 they do not necessarily equate with gas volumes expressed in specific national terms. The difference between these world consumption figures and the world production statistics is due to variations in stocks at storage facilities and liquefaction plants, together with unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of gas supply and demand data.

Consumption data in the PDF data table is in billion cubic meters (bcm) and exajoules, data in billion cubic feet per day (bcf/day) can be found in the Excel workbook.

Natural gas prices

Annual prices are given for benchmark natural gas hubs together with contracted pipeline and LNG imports. The benchmark hub prices incorporate US (Henry Hub), Canada (Alberta), Netherlands TTF index and the UK (NBP). Contract prices are represented by LNG imports into Japan, the Japan Korea Marker (JKM) and Average German Import Prices.

The prices for LNG and European border are calculated as CIF prices, where CIF = cost + insurance + freight (average freight prices) in US dollars per million British thermal units (Btu).

Natural gas trade movements

Trade flows are on a contractual basis and may not correspond to physical gas flows in all cases. The data illustrates the flow of pipeline natural gas and LNG between sources of production and the regions of consumption. As far as possible, the data represents standard cubic metres (measured at 15ºC and 1013 mbar) and has been standardized using a gross calorific value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3.

Coal

Coal reserves

Total proved reserves of coal are generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainly can be recovered in the future from known deposits under existing economic and operating conditions.

Total proved coal reserves are shown for anthracite and bituminous (including brown coal) and sub-bituminous and lignite.

Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios represent the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at the previous year's rate. They are calculated by dividing remaining reserves at the end of the year by the production in that year. The R/P ratios are calculated excluding other solid fuels in reserves and production.

R/P ratios are available by country and feature in the table of coal reserves. R/P ratios for the region and the world are depicted in the chart above and the Energy charting tool. Coal reserve data is in million tonnes.

Please note that these reserves tables have not been updated this year.

Coal production

Coal production includes data for commercial solid fuels only. Included in the hard coal category are bituminous and anthracite (hard coal). The sub-bituminous coal includes lignite and brown coal. Other commercial solid fuels are also included. The data includes coal produced for coal-to-liquids and coal-to-gas transformations.

In the coal production PDF table, the units are in exajoules. The data can also be downloaded from the Excel workbook in million tonnes.

Coal consumption

Coal consumption includes data for solid fuels only. Included in the hard coal category are bituminous and anthracite. The sub-bituminous coal includes lignite and brown coal. Other commercial solid fuels are also included. The figures exclude coal converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, but includes coal consumed in transformation processes.

Differences between world consumption figures and the world production statistics are accounted for by stock changes, and unavoidable disparities in the definition, measurement or conversion of coal supply and demand data.

Coal prices

Annual prices quoted include the Northwest Europe marker price, Japan steam spot CIF price, China Quinhuangdao spot price and the US Central Appalachian coal spot price index. Coal prices except for the US Central Appalachian price are calculated as CIF prices, where CIF = cost + insurance + freight (average freight prices). The US Central Appalachian price is FOB = free on board. All prices are quoted in US dollars per tonne.

IHS Northwest Europe prices for 1996-2000 are the average of the monthly marker, 2001-2017 the average of weekly prices. IHS Japan prices basis = 6,000 kilocalories per kilogram NAR CIF. Chinese prices are the average monthly price for 2000-2005, weekly prices 2006-2017, 5,500 kilocalories per kilogram NAR, including cost and freight (CFR).

Coal trade movements

Commercial solid fuels only, i.e. bituminous coal and anthracite (hard coal), and lignite and brown (sub-bituminous) coal, and other commercial solid fuels. Intra-area movements (for example, between countries in Europe, Other CIS, Other Africa, Other Asia Pacific) are excluded.

Nuclear energy

The data are based on gross generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. ’Input-equivalent’ energy is the amount of fuel that would be required by thermal power stations to generate the reported electricity output.

Details on thermal efficiency assumptions are available here.

Data for the units are in exajoules in the PDF. The data are available in the Excel workbook in terawatt–hours (TWh).

Hydroelectricity

The data are based on gross generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. ‘Input-equivalent’ energy is the amount of fuel that would be required by thermal power stations to generate the reported electricity output.

Details on thermal efficiency assumptions are available online.

In the hydroelectricity consumption PDF table, the units are in exajoules. The data are available in the Excel workbook in terawatt-hours (TWh).

Renewable energy

Renewable energy

The data are based on gross generation and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply. ‘Input-equivalent’ energy is the amount of fuel that would be required by thermal power stations to generate the reported electricity output.

Details on thermal efficiency assumptions are available online.

Renewable power is based on gross generation from renewable sources including wind, geothermal, solar, biomass and waste, and not accounting for cross-border electricity supply.

Biofuels production and consumption

The data includes biogasoline (such as ethanol) and biodiesel. Volumes have been adjusted for energy content.

The biofuels PDF tables are in thousand barrels of oil equivalent per day figures. The data are available in additional units in the Excel workbook.

Electricity

Electricity generation is based on gross output.

Carbon

Carbon emissions from primary energy use are estimated by applying the Default CO2 Emission ‎Factors for Combustion to the consumption of each energy product type (coal, natural gas and ‎various oil products) from the list of IPCC emission factors. Biofuels are considered as not emitting ‎CO2, consistent with the practice of the IEA. Second, the revised method takes account of fuel ‎consumption used for non-combustion purposes, such as the use of oil products and natural gas in ‎the petrochemicals industry or of oil to produce bitumen for road construction. Estimates of the ‎share of non-combusted fossil fuels taken from the IEA’s energy balances are subtracted from the ‎total consumption of fossil fuels before applying the relevant emission factors.

Carbon ‎emissions from flared natural gas are calculated using data series on volumes of gas flared from two sources: Cedigaz up to 2012, and the ‎Payne Institute for Public Policy, Colorado School of Mines, from 2013 onward. Payne Institute’s data ‎include flaring from upstream, downstream oil and gas, while Cedigaz include flaring from upstream ‎only. Volumes of gas flared have been standardised using a Gross Calorific Value (GCV) of 40 MJ/m3. ‎The IPCC Default CO2 Emission Factor for Combustion for natural gas (56,100 kg CO2 per TJ) is used ‎and perfect combustion has been assumed. These emissions represent around 1% of total CO2 ‎emissions.‎

Data for methane emissions associated with the production, transportation and distribution of fossil fuels for 1990-2020 are sourced, where available, from IEA (2021, 2022) Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy (all rights reserved). For a selected number of fossil fuel-producing countries where methane emission data is not currently available, an estimate of historical methane emissions has been derived using regional average methane intensity of production. For 2021, methane emission estimates are derived for all countries using methane intensity of fossil fuel production in 2020. Total methane emissions at a global and regional level show a discrepancy with IEA data due to non-inclusion of residual emissions i.e. emissions which have not been allocated to named countries. There is a wide range of uncertainty with respect to both current estimates of methane emissions and the global warming potential of methane emissions. To ensure alignment with financial and government reporting standards, the methane to CO2e factor is a 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 25, recommended by the IPCC in AR4.

Carbon emissions from industrial processes refer only to non-energy CO2 emissions from cement production and are sourced for 1990-2021 from Andrew, R. M. (2019) Global CO2 emissions from cement production, 1928-2018. Earth System Science Data 11, 1675-1710, (updated dataset May 2022).

Minerals

Total proved reserves of minerals are generally taken to be those quantities that geological and engineering information indicates with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known resources under existing economic and geological conditions.

The data series for mineral reserves in this year’s review does not necessarily meet the definitions, guidelines and practices used for determining proved reserves at company level nor does it necessarily represent the EI's view of proved reserves by country. Rather the data series has been compiled using a combination of primary official sources and third-party data.

Revisions and Corrections - Each year revisions are made to historical data when updated or more reliable data sources become available. Corrections are also made when errors are identified in data. In this Statistical Review corrections have been made to the emissions, biofuels, historical oil prices and oil refinery throughput tables.

Statistics published in the review are taken from government sources and published data. The following list provides useful links to third-party sources that contribute to the publication.

With thanks to our partners:

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